Are Vaccines Creating Superbugs?

The following collection of scientific references builds the case that vaccines may be causing mutations, and creating a similar problem as antibiotic resistance. It is worth a look….http://ow.ly/owt2T

Vaccination may reduce disease incidence, but vaccine-adapted mutants do follow the introduction of widespread vaccination. Examples include mutant forms of the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus in Taiwan after universal vaccine began in 1984 (data from Hsu et al. 2004); the spread of non-vaccine alleles of pertactin in Bordetella pertussis populations in Finland (data from Elomaa et al. 2005) and the Netherlands (data from van Loo et al. 1999). Widespread pertussis vaccination was introduced into those countries in 1952 and 1953, respectively. Increasing frequency of non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae after the introduction in the United States in 2000 of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing 7 of 90 possible serotypes (data from Flannery et al. 2006)…(read more)

From: HIB vaccine: 2010 study in British Colombia International Journal of Infectious Diseases http://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(10)02528-2/fulltext

H. influenzae serotype analysis suggests an evolving population of bacteria, possibly as a result of adaptation in response to Hib vaccine pressure and immune selection from the host. Study also showed a shift from pediatric to adult populations, and many of the non-vaccine isolates were still antibiotic resistant. 

Besides documenting an evolving H. influenzae population, the demographics of patients with invasive H. influenzae disease has also changed enormously in the last two decades since the introduction of Hib vaccines. Instead of being mainly a pediatric disease, different capsular types and non-encapsulated H. influenzae appear to be causing disease in patients of different age groups. In 1989, before Hib conjugate vaccines were introduced in Canada, 24 cases of invasive Hib were reported in the province of British Columbia. Twenty-one (88%) of these 24 cases were in children aged 14 years or below and 17 cases (71%) were in children less than 5 years old. There were only three cases in adults over the age of 25 years (Public Health Agency of Canada, Notifiable Diseases On-line: http://dsol-smed.hc-sc.gc.ca/dsol-smed/ndis/index-eng.php). In 2008 and 2009, 75% of the 12 Hib cases were in adults aged 21 years and above. It appears that serotype a H. influenzae has now replaced Hib as the most common cause of invasive disease in Canadian children aged 2 years or under, with 80% of the cases in British Columbia (this study) and 72% of the Manitoba cases12 in this age group. More common than serotype a are non-typeable or non-encapsulated strains as the cause of invasive disease; and in British Columbia, these strains appear to affect adults more than children (83% of invasive non-typeable cases were in those over the age of 18 years). It is not known what causes patients of a certain age group to be susceptible to certain strains of invasive H. influenzae. It could be the immunological status of the host or perhaps encapsulation and/or other genetic makeup of the H. influenzae strains. This is an intriguing question that is common to many if not all encapsulated invasive bacterial disease agents and the infectious process; answers to such a complex question would require more carefully planned studies of both the pathogen as well as the host.”